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George Somero

George Somero

David and Lucile Packard Professor in Marine Science, Emeritus

About

EDUCATIONB.A. 1962 Carleton College - BiologyPh.D. 1967 Stanford University - BiologyPROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE2008-current Associate Director—Hopkins Marine Station2005-current Senior Fellow—Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University2000-2008 Director—Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University1995-current David and Lucile Packard Professor of Marine Science, Stanford University1991-1995 Wayne and Gladys Valley Professor of Marine Biology, Oregon State University1980-1991 Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego1984-1989 John Dove Isaacs Chair in Natural Philosophy, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1983-1989 Chair, Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1976-1980 Associate Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1970-1976 Assistant Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1967-1970 Postdoctoral Fellow, University of British Columbia1963-1966 Member-U.S. Antarctic Research ProgramAWARDSNational Science Foundation Predoctoral FellowshipNational Science Foundation Postdoctoral FellowshipIsaac Walton Killam Postdoctoral FellowshipJohn Simon Guggenheim Memorial FellowshipMember of U.S. National Academy of SciencesFellow of the American Association for the Advancement of ScienceHonorary Doctor of Science Degree-Carleton CollegeHelsinki Medal-University of HelsinkiMember of California Academy of SciencesEDITORIAL BOARDSAmerican Journal of Physiology, Journal of Comparative Physiology, Journal of Experimental Biology, Comparative Biochemistry and PhysiologyGOVERNMENT PANELSNational Science Foundation—Panel on Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology (1992-1995)National Research Council—Ocean Studies Board (1997-1999)National Research Council—Committee on Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of MarineReserves and Protected Areas (1998-2000)National Research Council—Frontiers in Polar Biology (2002)National Research Council—International Polar Year committee (2003)National Research Council—Committee on Ocean Acidification (chair: 2012)

Academic Appointments

Professor Emeritus, Biology
Member, Bio-X
Affiliate, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment

Publications

Yao, C.-L., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Thermal stress and cellular signaling processes in hemocytes of native (Mytilus californianus) and invasive (M. galloprovincialis) mussels: Cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 165(2), 159-168.

Dowd, W. W., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 216(3), 502-514.

Lockwood, B. L., & Somero, G. N. (2012). Functional Determinants of Temperature Adaptation in Enzymes of Cold- versus Warm-Adapted Mussels (Genus Mytilus). MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 29(10), 3061-3070.

Somero, G. N. (2012). The Physiology of Global Change: Linking Patterns to Mechanisms. ANNUAL REVIEW OF MARINE SCIENCE, VOL 4, 4, 39-61.

Somero, G. N. (2011). Comparative physiology: a "crystal ball" for predicting consequences of global change. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 301(1), R1-R14.

Logan, C. A., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Effects of thermal acclimation on transcriptional responses to acute heat stress in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 300(6), R1373-R1383.

Lockwood, B. L., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Transcriptomic responses to salinity stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, 20(3), 517-529.

Evans, T. G., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Phosphorylation Events Catalyzed by Major Cell Signaling Proteins Differ in Response to Thermal and Osmotic Stress among Native (Mytilus californianus and Mytilus trossulus) and Invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) Species of Mussels. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY, 83(6), 984–996.

Lockwood, B. L., Sanders, J. G., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Transcriptomic responses to heat stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus): molecular correlates of invasive success. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 213(20), 3548-3558.

Logan, C. A., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Transcriptional responses to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper 1864). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 299(3), R843-R852.

Somero, G. N. (2010). The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine 'winners' and 'losers'. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 213(6), 912-920.

Castilho, P. C., Buckley, B. A., Somero, G., & Block, B. A. (2009). Heterologous hybridization to a complementary DNA microarray reveals the effect of thermal acclimation in the endothermic bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, 18(10), 2092-2102.

Dong, Y., & Somero, G. N. (2009). Temperature adaptation of cytosolic malate dehydrogenases of limpets (genus Lottia): differences in stability and function due to minor changes in sequence correlate with biogeographic and vertical distributions. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 212(2), 169-177.

Evans, T. G., & Somero, G. N. (2009). Protein-protein interactions enable rapid adaptive response to osmotic stress in fish gills. Communicative & integrative biology, 2(2), 94-96.

Evans, T. G., & Somero, G. N. (2008). A microarray-based transcriptomic time-course of hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress signaling events in the euryhaline fish Gillichthys mirabilis: osmosensors to effectors. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 211(22), 3636-3649.

Dong, Y., Miller, L. P., Sanders, J. G., & Somero, G. N. (2008). Heat-Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Expression in Four Limpets of the Genus Lottia: Interspecific Variation in Constitutive and Inducible Synthesis Correlates With in situ Exposure to Heat Stress. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 215(2), 173-181.

Buckley, B. A., Gracey, A. Y., & Somero, G. N. (2006). The cellular response to heat stress in the goby Gillichthys mirabilis: a cDNA microarray and protein-level analysis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(14), 2660-2677.

Braby, C. E., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Following the heart: temperature and salinity effects on heart rate in native and invasive species of blue mussels (genus Mytilus). JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(13), 2554-2566.

Stenseng, E., Braby, C. E., & Somero, G. N. (2005). Evolutionary and acclimation-induced variation in the thermal limits of heart function in congeneric marine snails (Genus Tegula): Implications for vertical zonation. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 208(2), 138-144.

Somero, G. N. (2005). Linking biogeography to physiology: Evolutionary and acclimatory adjustments of thermal limits. Frontiers in zoology, 2(1), 1.

Somero, G. N., & Suarez, R. K. (2005). Peter Hochachka: Adventures in biochemical adaptation. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY, 67, 25-37.

Somero, G. N. (2004). Adaptation of enzymes to temperature: searching for basic "strategies". COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 139(3), 321-333.

Podrabsky, J. E., & Somero, G. N. (2004). Changes in gene expression associated with acclimation to constant temperatures and fluctuating daily temperatures in an annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 207(13), 2237-2254.

Johns, G. C., & Somero, G. N. (2004). Evolutionary convergence in adaptation of proteins to temperature: A(4)-Lactate dehydrogenases of pacific damselfishes (Chromis spp.). MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 21(2), 314-320.

Ream, R. A., Theriot, J. A., & Somero, G. N. (2003). Influences of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the motility of epithelial wound-healing cells (keratocytes) of tropical, temperate and Antarctic fish. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 206(24), 4539-4551.

Somero, G. N. (2003). Protein adaptations to temperature and pressure: complementary roles of adaptive changes in amino acid sequence and internal milieu. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 136(4), 577-591.

Sanford, E., Roth, M. S., Johns, G. C., Wares, J. P., & Somero, G. N. (2003). Local selection and latitudinal variation in a marine predator-prey interaction. SCIENCE, 300(5622), 1135-1137.

Ream, R. A., Johns, G. C., & Somero, G. N. (2003). Base compositions of genes encoding alpha-actin and lactate dehydrogenase-A from differently adapted vertebrates show no temperature-adaptive variation in G+C content. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 20(1), 105-110.

Somero, G. N. (2002). Obituary: Peter W. Hochachka (1937-2002). Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP, 133(4), 471-473.

Somero, G. N. (2002). Thermal physiology and vertical zonation of intertidal animals: Optima, limits, and costs of living. INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY, 42(4), 780-789.

Fields, P. A., Kim, Y. S., Carpenter, J. F., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Temperature adaptation in Gillichthys (Teleost : Gobiidae) A(4)-lactate dehydrogenases: identical primary structures produce subtly different conformations. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 205(9), 1293-1303.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Interspecific- and acclimation-induced variation in levels of heat-shock proteins 70 (hsp70) and 90 (hsp90) and heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF1) in congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula): implications for regulation of hsp gene expression. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 205(5), 677-685.

Lin, J. J., Yang, T. H., Wahlstrand, B. D., Fields, P. A., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships and biochemical properties of the duplicated cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of malate dehydrogenase from a teleost fish, Sphyraena idiastes. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION, 54(1), 107-117.

Fields, P. A., Wahlstrand, B. D., & Somero, G. N. (2001). Intrinsic versus extrinsic stabilization of enzymes - The interaction of solutes and temperature on A(4)-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, 268(16), 4497-4505.

Gracey, A. Y., Troll, J. V., & Somero, G. N. (2001). Hypoxia-induced gene expression profiling in the euryoxic fish Gillichthys mirabilis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 98(4), 1993-1998.

Stillman, J. H., & Somero, G. N. (2001). A comparative analysis of the evolutionary patterning and mechanistic bases of lactate dehydrogenase thermal stability in porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 204(4), 767-776.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (2000). Time course and magnitude of synthesis of heat-shock proteins in congeneric marine snails (Genus Tegula) from different tidal heights. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY, 73(2), 249-256.

Somero, G. N. (2000). Unity in diversity: A perspective on the methods, contributions, and future of comparative physiology. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY, 62, 927-937.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (1999). Evolutionary and acclimation-induced variation in the heat-shock responses of congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula) from different thermal habitats: implications for limits of thermotolerance and biogeography. The Journal of experimental biology, 202(Pt 21), 2925-2936.

Fields, P. A., & Somero, G. N. (1998). Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A(4) orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 95(19), 11476-11481.