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George Somero

George Somero

David and Lucile Packard Professor in Marine Science, Emeritus

About

EDUCATIONB.A. 1962 Carleton College - BiologyPh.D. 1967 Stanford University - BiologyPROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE2008-current Associate Director—Hopkins Marine Station2005-current Senior Fellow—Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University2000-2008 Director—Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University1995-current David and Lucile Packard Professor of Marine Science, Stanford University1991-1995 Wayne and Gladys Valley Professor of Marine Biology, Oregon State University1980-1991 Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego1984-1989 John Dove Isaacs Chair in Natural Philosophy, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1983-1989 Chair, Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1976-1980 Associate Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1970-1976 Assistant Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography1967-1970 Postdoctoral Fellow, University of British Columbia1963-1966 Member-U.S. Antarctic Research ProgramAWARDSNational Science Foundation Predoctoral FellowshipNational Science Foundation Postdoctoral FellowshipIsaac Walton Killam Postdoctoral FellowshipJohn Simon Guggenheim Memorial FellowshipMember of U.S. National Academy of SciencesFellow of the American Association for the Advancement of ScienceHonorary Doctor of Science Degree-Carleton CollegeHelsinki Medal-University of HelsinkiMember of California Academy of SciencesEDITORIAL BOARDSAmerican Journal of Physiology, Journal of Comparative Physiology, Journal of Experimental Biology, Comparative Biochemistry and PhysiologyGOVERNMENT PANELSNational Science Foundation—Panel on Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology (1992-1995)National Research Council—Ocean Studies Board (1997-1999)National Research Council—Committee on Evaluation, Design, and Monitoring of MarineReserves and Protected Areas (1998-2000)National Research Council—Frontiers in Polar Biology (2002)National Research Council—International Polar Year committee (2003)National Research Council—Committee on Ocean Acidification (chair: 2012)

Academic Appointments

Professor Emeritus, Biology
Member, Bio-X
Affiliate, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment

Publications

Liao, M.-L., Somero, G. N., & Dong, Y.-W. (2018). Comparing mutagenesis and simulations as tools for identifying functionally important sequence changes for protein thermal adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

Somero, G. N. (2018). RNA thermosensors: how might animals exploit their regulatory potential? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(Pt 4).

Dong, Y.-wei, Liao, M.-ling, Meng, X.-liang, & Somero, G. N. (2018). Structural flexibility and protein adaptation to temperature: Molecular dynamics analysis of malate dehydrogenases of marine molluscs. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 115(6), 1274–79.

Gleason, L. U., Miller, L. P., Winnikoff, J. R., Somero, G. N., Yancey, P. H., Bratz, D., & Dowd, W. W. (2017). Thermal history and gape of individual Mytilus californianus correlate with oxidative damage and thermoprotective osmolytes. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 220(22), 4292–4304.

Liao, M.-L., Zhang, S., Zhang, G.-Y., Chu, Y.-M., Somero, G. N., & Dong, Y.-W. (2017). ): protein underpinnings of tolerance to body temperatures reaching 55°C. Journal of Experimental Biology, 220, 2066–75.

Dong, Y.-W., Li, X.-xu, Choi, F. M. P., Williams, G. A., Somero, G. N., & Helmuth, B. (2017). Untangling the roles of microclimate, behaviour and physiological polymorphism in governing vulnerability of intertidal snails to heat stress. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 284(1854).

Somero, G. N., Beers, J. M., Chan, F., Hill, T. M., Klinger, T., & Litvin, S. Y. (2016). What Changes in the Carbonate System, Oxygen, and Temperature Portend for the Northeastern Pacific Ocean: A Physiological Perspective. BIOSCIENCE, 66(1), 14–26.

Fields, P. A., Dong, Y., Meng, X., & Somero, G. N. (2015). Adaptations of protein structure and function to temperature: there is more than one way to 'skin a cat'. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 218(12), 1801–11.

Fields, P. A., Dong, Y., Meng, X., & Somero, G. N. (2015). Adaptations of protein structure and function to temperature: there is more than one way to 'skin a cat'. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218, 1801–11.

Jayasundara, N., Tomanek, L., Dowd, W. W., & Somero, G. N. (2015). Proteomic analysis of cardiac response to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal goby fish Gillichthys mirabilis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 218(9), 1359–72.

Somero, G. (2015). Temporal patterning of thermal acclimation: from behavior to membrane biophysics. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218, 167–69.

Tepolt, C. K., & Somero, G. N. (2014). Master of all trades: thermal acclimation and adaptation of cardiac function in a broadly distributed marine invasive species, the European green crab, Carcinus maenas. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217, 1129–38.

Yao, C.-L., & Somero, G. N. (2014). The impact of ocean warming on marine organisms. CHINESE SCIENCE BULLETIN, 59(5-6), 468–79.

Dowd, W. W., Felton, C. A., Heymann, H. M., Kost, L. E., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Food availability, more than body temperature, drives correlated shifts in ATP-generating and antioxidant enzyme capacities in a population of intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus). JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY, 449, 171–85.

Jayasundara, N., Healy, T. M., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Effects of temperature acclimation on cardiorespiratory performance of the Antarctic notothenioid Trematomus bernacchii. POLAR BIOLOGY, 36(7), 1047–57.

Jayasundara, N., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Physiological plasticity of cardiorespiratory function in a eurythermal marine teleost, the longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216, 2111–21.

Kueltz, D., Clayton, D. F., Robinson, G. E., Albertson, C., Carey, H. V., Cummings, M. E., … Todgham, A. E. (2013). New Frontiers for Organismal Biology. BIOSCIENCE, 63(6), 464–71.

Yao, C.-L., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Thermal stress and cellular signaling processes in hemocytes of native (Mytilus californianus) and invasive (M. galloprovincialis) mussels: Cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 165(2), 159–168.

Somero, G. N. (2013). A 1950s CLASSIC OF THERMAL ADAPTATION TO COLD. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 216(10), 1759–61.

Somero, G. (2013). Lessons from cold-adapted enzymes: Can protein adaptation to temperature be simple and quick? INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY, 53, E204.

Dowd, W. W., & Somero, G. N. (2013). Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 216(3), 502–514.

Yao, C.-L., & Somero, G. N. (2012). The impact of acute temperature stress on hemocytes of invasive and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus californianus): DNA damage, membrane integrity, apoptosis and signaling pathways. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 215(24), 4267–77.

Lockwood, B. L., & Somero, G. N. (2012). Functional Determinants of Temperature Adaptation in Enzymes of Cold- versus Warm-Adapted Mussels (Genus Mytilus). MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 29(10), 3061–3070.

Somero, G. N. (2012). The Physiology of Global Change: Linking Patterns to Mechanisms. ANNUAL REVIEW OF MARINE SCIENCE, VOL 4, 4, 39–61.

Logan, C. A., Kost, L. E., & Somero, G. N. (2012). Latitudinal differences in Mytilus californianus thermal physiology. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES, 450, 93–105.

Driedzic, W. R., Shick, J. M., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011) Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 160(3), 440–42.

Driedzic, W. R., Shick, J. M., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011) Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY C-TOXICOLOGY & PHARMACOLOGY, 154(4), 437–39.

Driedzic, W. R., Shick, J. M., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011) Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 160(2-3), 119–21.

Driedzic, W. R., Shick, J. M., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011) Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY D-GENOMICS & PROTEOMICS, 6(3), 335–36.

Driedzic, W., Shick, J. M., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Bruce D. Sidell 20 March 1948-8 February 2011 OBITUARY. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 214(15), 2453–54.

Somero, G. N. (2011). Comparative physiology: a "crystal ball" for predicting consequences of global change. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 301(1), R1–R14.

Logan, C. A., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Effects of thermal acclimation on transcriptional responses to acute heat stress in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 300(6), R1373–R1383.

Lockwood, B. L., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus) on the California coast: The role of physiology in a biological invasion. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY, 400(1-2), 167–74.

Lockwood, B. L., & Somero, G. N. (2011). Transcriptomic responses to salinity stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, 20(3), 517–529.

Evans, T. G., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Phosphorylation Events Catalyzed by Major Cell Signaling Proteins Differ in Response to Thermal and Osmotic Stress among Native (Mytilus californianus and Mytilus trossulus) and Invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) Species of Mussels. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY, 83(6), 984–996.

Lockwood, B. L., Sanders, J. G., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Transcriptomic responses to heat stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus): molecular correlates of invasive success. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 213(20), 3548–3558.

Logan, C. A., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Transcriptional responses to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper 1864). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-REGULATORY INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 299(3), R843–R852.

Lockwood, B. L., Sanders, J. G., & Somero, G. N. (2010). Transcriptomic responses to heat-stress reveal the molecular basis for the success of invasive mussels. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology, SEATTLE,WA,WA,WA,WA,WA: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC.

Somero, G. N. (2010). The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine 'winners' and 'losers'. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 213(6), 912–920.

Denny, M. W., Lockwood, B. L., & Somero, G. N. (2009). Can the giant snake predict palaeoclimate? NATURE, 460(7255), E3–E4.

Castilho, P. C., Buckley, B. A., Somero, G., & Block, B. A. (2009). Heterologous hybridization to a complementary DNA microarray reveals the effect of thermal acclimation in the endothermic bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, 18(10), 2092–2102.

Buckley, B. A., & Somero, G. N. (2009). cDNA microarray analysis reveals the capacity of the cold-adapted Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii to alter gene expression in response to heat stress. POLAR BIOLOGY, 32(3), 403–15.

Dong, Y., & Somero, G. N. (2009). Temperature adaptation of cytosolic malate dehydrogenases of limpets (genus Lottia): differences in stability and function due to minor changes in sequence correlate with biogeographic and vertical distributions. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 212(2), 169–177.

Evans, T. G., & Somero, G. N. (2009). Protein-protein interactions enable rapid adaptive response to osmotic stress in fish gills. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 2(2), 94–96.

Evans, T. G., & Somero, G. N. (2008). A microarray-based transcriptomic time-course of hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress signaling events in the euryhaline fish Gillichthys mirabilis: osmosensors to effectors. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 211(22), 3636–3649.

Gracey, A. Y., Chaney, M. L., Boomhower, J. P., Tyburczy, W. R., Connor, K., & Somero, G. N. (2008). Rhythms of Gene Expression in a Fluctuating Intertidal Environment. CURRENT BIOLOGY, 18(19), 1501–7.

Dong, Y., Miller, L. P., Sanders, J. G., & Somero, G. N. (2008). Heat-Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Expression in Four Limpets of the Genus Lottia: Interspecific Variation in Constitutive and Inducible Synthesis Correlates With in situ Exposure to Heat Stress. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 215(2), 173–181.

Poertner, H. O., Peck, L., & Somero, G. (2007). Thermal limits and adaptation in marine Antarctic ectotherms: an integrative view. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 362(1488), 2233–58.

Podrabsky, J. E., & Somero, G. N. (2007). An inducible 70 kDa-class heat shock protein is constitutively expressed during early development and diapause in the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus. CELL STRESS & CHAPERONES, 12(3), 199–204.

Podrabsky, J. E., Lopez, J. P., Fan, T. W. M., Higashi, R., & Somero, G. N. (2007). Extreme anoxia tolerance in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus: insights from a metabolomics analysis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 210(13), 2253–66.

Petricorena, Z. I. L. C., & Somero, G. N. (2007). Biochemical adaptations of notothenioid fishes: Comparisons between cold temperate South American and New Zealand species and Antarctic species. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 147(3), 799–807.

Podrabsky, J. E., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Inducible heat tolerance in Antarctic notothenioid fishes. POLAR BIOLOGY, 30(1), 39–43.

Buckley, B. A., Gracey, A. Y., & Somero, G. N. (2006). The cellular response to heat stress in the goby Gillichthys mirabilis: a cDNA microarray and protein-level analysis. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(14), 2660–2677.

Braby, C. E., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Following the heart: temperature and salinity effects on heart rate in native and invasive species of blue mussels (genus Mytilus). JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(13), 2554–2566.

Phillips, K., Hoppeler, H., & Somero, G. (2006). Have your say: welcome to the JEB Forum. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(10), 1785–85.

Braby, C. E., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Ecological gradients and relative abundance of native (Mytilus trossulus) and invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) blue mussels in the California hybrid zone. MARINE BIOLOGY, 148(6), 1249–62.

Sagarin, R. D., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Complex patterns of expression of heat-shock protein 70 across the southern biogeographical ranges of the intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus and snail Nucella ostrina. JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, 33(4), 622–30.

Podrabsky, J. E., Lopez, J., Higashi, R., Fan, T., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Extreme anoxia tolerance in a vertebrate embryo. FASEB JOURNAL, 20(5), A827–A827.

Fields, P. A., Rudomin, E. L., & Somero, G. N. (2006). Temperature sensitivities of cytosolic malate dehydrogenases from native and invasive species of marine mussels (genus Mytilus): sequence-function linkages and correlations with biogeographic distribution. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 209(4), 656–67.

Stenseng, E., Braby, C. E., & Somero, G. N. (2005). Evolutionary and acclimation-induced variation in the thermal limits of heart function in congeneric marine snails (Genus Tegula): Implications for vertical zonation. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 208(2), 138–144.

Buckley, B. A., Gracey, A. Y., & Somero, G. N. (2005). A cDNA microarray analysis of thermally responsive gene expression in a eurythermal goby, Gillichthys mirabilis. FASEB JOURNAL, 19(5), A1313.

Chancy, M. L., Boomhower, J., Gracey, A. Y., & Somero, G. N. (2005). Genomic responses to tides and temperature in Mytilis californianus. FASEB JOURNAL, 19(5), A1313.

Somero, G. N. (2005). Linking biogeography to physiology: Evolutionary and acclimatory adjustments of thermal limits. Frontiers in Zoology, 2(1), 1-?

Somero, G. N., & Suarez, R. K. (2005). Peter Hochachka: Adventures in biochemical adaptation. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY, 67, 25–37.

Somero, G. N. (2004). Adaptation of enzymes to temperature: searching for basic "strategies". COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 139(3), 321–333.

Somero, G. N. (2004). Peter W. Hochachka 1937-2002 - Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 139(3), 313–14.

Somero, G. N. (2004). Preface to Peter Hochachka memorial volume. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 139(3), 311–12.

Podrabsky, J. E., & Somero, G. N. (2004). Changes in gene expression associated with acclimation to constant temperatures and fluctuating daily temperatures in an annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 207(13), 2237–2254.

Johns, G. C., & Somero, G. N. (2004). Evolutionary convergence in adaptation of proteins to temperature: A(4)-Lactate dehydrogenases of pacific damselfishes (Chromis spp.). MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 21(2), 314–320.

Ream, R. A., Theriot, J. A., & Somero, G. N. (2003). Influences of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the motility of epithelial wound-healing cells (keratocytes) of tropical, temperate and Antarctic fish. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 206(24), 4539–4551.

Somero, G. N. (2003). Protein adaptations to temperature and pressure: complementary roles of adaptive changes in amino acid sequence and internal milieu. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 136(4), 577–591.

Sanford, E., Roth, M. S., Johns, G. C., Wares, J. P., & Somero, G. N. (2003). Local selection and latitudinal variation in a marine predator-prey interaction. SCIENCE, 300(5622), 1135–1137.

Ream, R. A., Johns, G. C., & Somero, G. N. (2003). Base compositions of genes encoding alpha-actin and lactate dehydrogenase-A from differently adapted vertebrates show no temperature-adaptive variation in G+C content. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 20(1), 105–110.

Somero, G. N. (2002). Obituary: Peter W. Hochachka (1937-2002). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP, 133(4), 471–473.

Somero, G. N. (2002). Peter W. Hochachka - 1937-2002 - Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR AND INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY, 133(4), 901–3.

Somero, G. N. (2002). Peter W. Hochachka 1937-2002 - Obituary. COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 133(4), 457–59.

Somero, G. N. (2002). Thermal physiology and vertical zonation of intertidal animals: Optima, limits, and costs of living. INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY, 42(4), 780–789.

Fields, P. A., Kim, Y. S., Carpenter, J. F., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Temperature adaptation in Gillichthys (Teleost : Gobiidae) A(4)-lactate dehydrogenases: identical primary structures produce subtly different conformations. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 205(9), 1293–1303.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Interspecific- and acclimation-induced variation in levels of heat-shock proteins 70 (hsp70) and 90 (hsp90) and heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF1) in congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula): implications for regulation of hsp gene expression. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 205(5), 677–685.

Kawall, H. G., Torres, J. J., Sidell, B. D., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Metabolic cold adaptation in Antarctic fishes: evidence from enzymatic activities of brain. MARINE BIOLOGY, 140(2), 279–86.

Lin, J. J., Yang, T. H., Wahlstrand, B. D., Fields, P. A., & Somero, G. N. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships and biochemical properties of the duplicated cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of malate dehydrogenase from a teleost fish, Sphyraena idiastes. JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION, 54(1), 107–117.

Fields, P. A., Wahlstrand, B. D., & Somero, G. N. (2001). Intrinsic versus extrinsic stabilization of enzymes - The interaction of solutes and temperature on A(4)-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY, 268(16), 4497–4505.

Gracey, A. Y., Troll, J. V., & Somero, G. N. (2001). Hypoxia-induced gene expression profiling in the euryoxic fish Gillichthys mirabilis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 98(4), 1993–1998.

Stillman, J. H., & Somero, G. N. (2001). A comparative analysis of the evolutionary patterning and mechanistic bases of lactate dehydrogenase thermal stability in porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 204(4), 767–776.

Hofmann, G. E., Buckley, B. A., Airaksinen, S., Keen, J. E., & Somero, G. N. (2000). Heat-shock protein expression is absent in the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii (family Nototheniidae). JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 203(15), 2331–39.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (2000). Time course and magnitude of synthesis of heat-shock proteins in congeneric marine snails (Genus Tegula) from different tidal heights. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY, 73(2), 249–256.

Stillman, J. H., & Somero, G. N. (2000). A comparative analysis of the upper thermal tolerance limits of eastern Pacific porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes: Influences of latitude, vertical zonation, acclimation, and phylogeny. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY, 73(2), 200–208.

Somero, G. N. (2000). Unity in diversity: A perspective on the methods, contributions, and future of comparative physiology. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHYSIOLOGY, 62, 927–937.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (1999). Evolutionary and acclimation-induced variation in the heat-shock responses of congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula) from different thermal habitats: Implications for limits of thermotolerance and biogeography. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 202(21), 2925–36.

Ream, R. A., Theriot, J. A., & Somero, G. N. (1999). The effect of temperature on fish keratocyte motility. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL, 10, 380A.

Tomanek, L., & Somero, G. N. (1999). Evolutionary and acclimation-induced variation in the heat-shock responses of congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula) from different thermal habitats: implications for limits of thermotolerance and biogeography. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 202(Pt 21), 2925–2936.

Stokes, M. D., & Somero, G. N. (1999). An optical oxygen sensor and reaction vessel for high-pressure applications. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 44(1), 189–95.

Fields, P. A., & Somero, G. N. (1998). Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A(4) orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 95(19), 11476–11481.

Weinstein, R. B., & Somero, G. N. (1998). Effects of temperature on mitochondrial function in the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii. JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, 168(3), 190–96.

Fields, P. A., & Somero, G. N. (1997). Amino acid sequence differences cannot fully explain interspecific variation in thermal sensitivities of gobiid fish A(4)-lactate dehydrogenases (A(4)-LDHS). JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 200(13), 1839–50.

Holland, L. Z., McFallngai, M., & Somero, G. N. (1997). Evolution of lactate dehydrogenase-A homologs of barracuda fishes (genus Sphyraena) from different thermal environments: Differences in kinetic properties and thermal stability are due to amino acid substitutions outside the active site. BIOCHEMISTRY, 36(11), 3207–15.

Yang, T. H., & Somero, G. N. (1996). Activity of lactate dehydrogenase but not its concentration of messenger RNA increases with body size in barred sand bass, Paralabrax nebulifer (Teleostei). BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 191(2), 155–58.

Schellman, J. A., & Somero, G. N. (1996). Serge Timasheff: The man with a genius for solutions in biology. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 71(4), 1985–93.

Hofmann, G. E., & Somero, G. N. (1996). Protein ubiquitination and stress protein synthesis in Mytilus trossulus occurs during recovery from tidal emersion. MOLECULAR MARINE BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 5(3), 175–84.

Stillman, J. H., & Somero, G. N. (1996). Adaptation to temperature stress and aerial exposure in congeneric species of intertidal porcelain crabs (genus Petrolisthes): Correlation of physiology, biochemistry and morphology with vertical distribution. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, 199(8), 1845–55.

Yang, T. H., & Somero, G. N. (1996). Fasting reduces protein and messenger RNA concentrations for lactate dehydrogenase but not for actin in white muscle of scorpionfish (Scorpaena guttata, Teleostei). MOLECULAR MARINE BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, 5(2), 153–61.

Somero, G. N. (1996). Temperature and proteins: Little things can mean a lot. NEWS IN PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 11, 72–77.

SOMERO, G. N., & DEVRIES, A. L. (1967). TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE OF SOME ANTARCTIC FISHES. SCIENCE, 156(3772), 257-&.